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Gaseous hydrogen can be stored forever as long as the system integrity is maintained. However, liquid hydrogen is “use it or lose it” and will boil from system heat leak and build pressure unless it is used or vented. This is not usually an issue for continuous use or low-pressure applications which can use hydrogen gas pressure directly from the tank.  

For intermittent or high…

Category: Fueling Stations
Keywords: Venting, Vaporizers, Compressors

The pressure regulator controls the liquid flow from the tank to the pressure build (PB) vaporizer. As the tank pressure falls, the pressure regulator opens. When the set pressure of the regulator is reached, then the regulator closes. The pressure build circuit depends largely on the required use pressure and the system house-line pressure drop, which is driven by peak flow rate, pressure,…

Category: System Design
Keywords: Safety, Pressure, Regulator

The purity required will be a function of the end use application. There are a variety of grades of hydrogen that can be purchased. The H2 purity will also vary based on source (GH2 or LH2) and production method. CGA G-5.3, Commodity Specification for Hydrogen, lists several typical purities of both liquid and gaseous hydrogen. Standard GH2 available from most suppliers is 99.95% hydrogen.…

Category: Properties
Keywords: Purity, Requirements, Specifications

The most common means to warm liquid or cold gaseous hydrogen is the use of ambient air vaporizers using ambient atmospheric. Other means can be through the use of electric heat or process waste heat.  

Category: System Design
Keywords: Vaporizers, Media, Economizer

A design condition for vent stacks is to always assume that the hydrogen will ignite. The stack musts be designed such that it can withstand those conditions as well as minimize radiation to surrounding personnel and exposures. Although hydrogen fires have comparatively low radiation compared to hydrocarbon fuels, the radiation from large releases from vent stacks can be quite high. Documents…

Category: Properties
Keywords: Fire, Radiant, Heat of Combustion, Vent Stack

Typically, the inner vessel material used is 304 SS and the outer vessel is a combination of 304 SS and carbon steel depending on location. 316 SS or 316L material can be used, but due to higher cost and lower strength, are typically only used for higher purity systems. Nearly all tanks manufactured today use various forms of vacuum jacketed multilayer insulation for best performance. Older…

Category: System Design
Keywords: Storage, Tank, Material Selection, Materials

Off gassing of hydrogen from battery sources depends on battery chemistry, usage/duty cycle, age, and other considerations. The specific battery manufacturer should provide recommendations for fire prevention and mitigation in battery charging rooms as the battery itself impacts how an event would be mitigated. Adequate ventilation such that combustible mixtures cannot develop is a general…

Category: Miscellaneous
Keywords: Battery, Ventilation, Charging

Catalytic recombiners are effective at preventing flammable hydrogen mixtures and also sometimes useful to monitor hydrogen concentrations through heat evolution when an oxidizer is present. Careful considerations must be made when integrating these elements into a design, so that they do not become a source ignition (and/or flame arrestors prevent propagation of a flame front) and the…

Category: System Design
Keywords: Catalyst, Flameless Reaction

Even if a small experiment is being run inside a fume hood, the best practice is to use a dedicated vent line for hydrogen which vents hydrogen to a safe location outside.  This is especially recommended for planned venting.   This practice avoids situations where flammable mixtures could develop. Each system is unique and should be evaluated and approved for  use independently…

Category: Lab Equipment
Keywords: Laboratory, Venting

Researchers from Sandia National Laboratories have conducted extensive research on these topics. They have reviewed the current literature, identified knowledge gaps in alternate fuel vehicles and tunnel safety, and developed a generalizable framework to assess tunnel safety for a diverse range of alternate fuel vehicles. Supported by…

Category: FC Electric Vehicles
Keywords: FC Vehicles, Safety
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