Hydrogen System Components

Storage and handling of compressed hydrogen gas and cryogenic liquid hydrogen present potential health and safety hazards. Use of proper hydrogen system components is essential for a safe work environment. In this section, best practices for components are described for:

  • Compressed Gas Storage – While cylinders may be stored indoors in small quantities, outside storage is generally safer.
    • Storage Vessels - Stationary aboveground storage for gaseous hydrogen generally consists of multiple cylindrical pressure vessel(s) mounted in a frame and installed on a concrete foundation.
    • Cylinder Storage – Recommendations for locating and safe handling of compressed gas cylinders are provided.
  • Compressed Gas Piping Systems - Recommendations for the design of compressed gas piping systems are provided.
  • Compressed Gas Piping System Components – Recommendations for pipe fittings, valves, excess flow valves, and hoses are provided.
  • Compressors – Considerations for the compressor installations are provided.
  • Handling Cryogenic Liquid – Considerations for handling cryogenic liquid hydrogen that are in addition to those for handling gaseous hydrogen are described.
  • Liquid Storage Vessels – Liquid hydrogen is usually stored in cylindrical tanks that are vacuum-insulated to minimize evaporation losses.
  • Liquid System Pressure Relief – The expansion of liquid hydrogen and the ease at which the liquid can be vaporized present unique pressure relief requirements.
  • Liquid Piping Systems – This section discusses considerations for liquid systems that are in addition to those for compressed gas systems.
  • Liquid Piping System Components – This section discusses some specific considerations for liquid systems that are in addition to those for compressed gas systems.
  • Vacuum Pumps – An introduction to vacuum pumps used to maintain insulating vacuum and purge hydrogen and associated purge gases from systems.