Hydrogen System Components
Storage and handling of compressed hydrogen gas and cryogenic liquid hydrogen present potential health and safety hazards. Use of proper hydrogen system components is essential for a safe work environment. In this section, best practices for components are described for:
- Compressed Gas Storage – While cylinders may be stored indoors in small quantities, outside storage is generally safer.
- Storage Vessels - Stationary aboveground storage for gaseous hydrogen generally consists of multiple cylindrical pressure vessel(s) mounted in a frame and installed on a concrete foundation.
- Cylinder Storage – Recommendations for locating and safe handling of compressed gas cylinders are provided.
- Compressed Gas Piping Systems - Recommendations for the design of compressed gas piping systems are provided.
- Compressed Gas Piping System Components – Recommendations for pipe fittings, valves, excess flow valves, and hoses are provided.
- Compressors – Considerations for the compressor installations are provided.
- Handling Cryogenic Liquid – Considerations for handling cryogenic liquid hydrogen that are in addition to those for handling gaseous hydrogen are described.
- Liquid Storage Vessels – Liquid hydrogen is usually stored in cylindrical tanks that are vacuum-insulated to minimize evaporation losses.
- Liquid System Pressure Relief – The expansion of liquid hydrogen and the ease at which the liquid can be vaporized present unique pressure relief requirements.
- Liquid Piping Systems – This section discusses considerations for liquid systems that are in addition to those for compressed gas systems.
- Liquid Piping System Components – This section discusses some specific considerations for liquid systems that are in addition to those for compressed gas systems.
- Vacuum Pumps – An introduction to vacuum pumps used to maintain insulating vacuum and purge hydrogen and associated purge gases from systems.
The International Fuel Gas Code also regulates hydrogen systems.
NFPA 55, Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers, Cylinders, and Tanks
See OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.103 for regulations on separation distances for hydrogen storage facilities.