A rupture occurred in a 24-inch gas line in a reformer. The pipe contained hydrogen and carbon monoxide at a pressure of about 400 psi and a temperature of 930 °C. The ruptured section of pipe had a high-temperature alloy steel outer wall, a refractory liner, and a stainless steel inner liner. The refractory lining had been repaired several times before (including three months prior to the incident) because of localized deterioration and hot spots. The repair procedure consisted of cutting a section of pipe, re-pouring the refractory liner, and patch-welding the outer wall.
A hydrogen generation plant experienced a fire and significant damage due to a concussive combustion event that started in a high-pressure hydrogen feed pipe.
The System Shutdown logic activated and the compressor automatically shut down on high vibration. When the operator investigated the unplanned shutdown, two broken compressor head fasteners were noted lying on the deck.
The contractor was replacing a needle valve and a check valve on the nitrogen purge line to the dispenser because of a small leak at the connection between the needle valve and the check valve. On reinstalling the valves, the contractor installed the check valve backwards, causing the pressure disk in the regulator to fail, venting about 1000 psig hydrogen into the air for about 10 seconds. This was found during testing of the contractor's work before the system was returned to normal service.
An instrument engineer at a hydrogen production facility was arresting the hydrogen leakage in tapping a pressure transmitter containing 131-bar hydrogen gas. The isolation valve was closed and the fittings near the pressure transmitter were loosened. The pressure dropped from 131 bar to 51 bar. The fitting was further loosened (though very little); the instrument tube slipped out of the ferrule and got pulled out of the fitting. With the sudden release of the 51-bar hydrogen, there was a loud pop (like a fire cracker) and the spark-proof tool was observed to have black spot on it.
A pipe rupture occurred in a steam methane reformer (SMR) process that produces hydrogen and export steam. The rupture occurred in a 24-inch diameter stainless steel (SS) pipe used to allow the process gas flow to bypass the high-temperature shift converter (HTS) during start-up. When the pipe ruptured, process gas contained in process equipment located upstream and downstream of the break vented into the SMR plant yard area. The vented process gas was a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, steam, and methane at 550 psig and 650 deg F.