A sidewall burst failure of a high-pressure polytetrafluoroethylene-lined hose was experienced. The 4.0-m hose was in service for approximately two years, primarily for 70 MPa fueling of hydrogen at ambient conditions ranging from -40 C to +50 C. The total number of fills during its service life was estimated to be 150. In addition to the high-volume fill events, pressure cycling occurred as part of the routine test procedures and operational protocols. These additional pressure-cycling occurrences were approximated to be 200-250 cycles.
Hydrogen was found to be leaking from a vent line during cryogenic loading operations. The leak was attributed to a cracked weld on a hydrogen vent line that consisted of (1) double wall aluminum piping and (2) slotted spacers between the inner and outer line to provide a hydrogen gas blanket for insulation. The weld that failed was repaired using a "clamshell" over the area of the failed weld in order to support continued operations. A portion of the failed weld was removed for analysis prior to the repair.
A hydrogen leak occurred when hydrogen tube trailer traveling on a rural roadway left the road, overturned on its side, and resulted in a single hydrogen tube valve being opened or broken. The cause of the accident is unknown, however, it appears to be unrelated to hydrogen (i.e., it is likely that human driving errors caused the accident). The hydrogen tubes contained compressed hydrogen gas at 200 bar (2,900 psi).
A hydrogen leak and subsequent explosion occurred when tie-downs on a hydrogen transport trailer securing hydrogen cylinder packages failed. The tie-down failure caused the hydrogen cylinder packages to fall off the trailer and eject some cylinders onto the roadway (see Figure 1). The cause of the accident is unknown, but it appears to be unrelated to hydrogen (i.e., likely tie-down strap weakness or error in properly securing tie-downs). The cylinders contained compressed hydrogen gas at 200 bar (2900 psi).
A 9,000-gallon (34,069-liter) cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage vessel, installed outdoors at a manufacturing plant in an urban area, over-pressurized and released hydrogen into the atmosphere through a safety relief device (burst disk). When the burst disk released pressure, a loud bang was heard by neighbors and reported to the local police. The police investigated and heard the sound of gaseous hydrogen escaping from the vessel's vent stack, which rose approximately 15-20 feet (4.6-6.1 meters) in the air.
A previously identified generator hydrogen gas leakage into the stator cooling water system exceeded the predetermined maximum operational allowance and the nuclear plant was shut down from 100 percent power in accordance with plant operating procedures. The leak was identified by monitoring the stator water cooling system detraining tank. Following reactor shut down and generator rotor removal, a small hole was located in the collector end winding area of a slot on the top stator bar.
In early afternoon, a northbound tractor-semitrailer with horizontally mounted tubes filled with compressed hydrogen at approximately 2400 psi (166 bar) was struck by a northbound pickup truck that veered into the semitrailer's right rear axle. According to witnesses, the tractor-semitrailer then went out of control and left the roadway, coming to rest approximately 300 feet (91 meters) from the point of impact. As a result of rotational torque and impact, the end of one tube was sheared off at the bulkhead and left the tube bundle.
Severe vibrations caused by broken low-pressure turbine blades damaged the main turbine generator at a nuclear power plant. These vibrations also caused multiple hydrogen leaks at equipment connections to the generator, resulting in hydrogen flames outside of the generator casing that caused minimal damage to the facility. Hydrogen is used to internally cool the plant's electric generators. Water from the fire suppression system and oil released from the turbine lube oil system during the event were contained within the plant, resulting in no impact to the environment.
A hydrogen leak at the flange of a 6-inch synthesis turbocharger valve in an ammonia production plant ignited and exploded. Hydrogen detectors and the fire alarm alerted the control room, which immediately shut down the plant, and the fire was then extinguished rapidly. There were no injuries caused by the accident, since the operator heard a wheezing sound and was able to run away just before the explosion occurred. The leaking gas was composed of 70% hydrogen at a flow rate of 15,000 cubic meters per hour.
A single-stage regulator "failed" while flowing hydrogen gas from a standard 200 cu.ft. gas bottle. The regulator had functioned properly prior to the event through several on-off cycles. During the event, a solenoid valve was opened to allow hydrogen to flow, when a rather loud noise was noted and gas began flowing out of the pressure relief valve on the side of the regulator. It was noted that the low-pressure gauge on the regulator was "pegged" at the high side (>200 psi). The valve on the bottle was shut off, and hydrogen flow was immediately stopped.