Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Truck Offloading Valve Failure

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

A plume of hydrogen gas escaped from the offloading valve of a liquid hydrogen delivery truck while transporting hydrogen to a commercial facility. The plume ignited, resulting in a flash and concussion loud enough to be heard inside the nearby building and to set off the building’s seismic event detectors. A small amount of hydrogen gas continued to escape from the trailer tank and burn until a company specialist arrived to manually shut off a critical valve almost eight hours later.

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Truck Fire

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

A fire erupted from a tanker truck delivering liquid hydrogen to a factory. The ignition of leaking vapors created a plume of flames that rose dozens of feet into the air. The flames receded within seconds, leaving the truck with little damage and its driver unharmed.

The truck was off-loading hydrogen into a tank behind the plant when the incident occurred. The plant reported no delays in its production. It uses the hydrogen in various processes.

Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank Failure

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

A liquid hydrogen tank’s rupture disc failed prematurely, which caused the tank to vent its entire gas contents through the tank’s vent stack. Venting was very loud and formed a condensed moisture cloud visible from the top of the stack. Liquid air was also visible coming off the stack. Venting ceased after approximately 5 minutes. On-site staff called the fire department, which arrived promptly and evacuated the area. Normal operations resumed after the Fire Department was able to determine there were no unsafe conditions.

Potential Un-reviewed Safety Question Due to Liquid Hydrogen Tank Installation

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

Installation of a 9000-gallon liquid hydrogen storage tank by a lessee at a building has not been evaluated for effect on the Safety Authorization Basis (SAB) of nearby facilities.

During review of an Emergency Management Hazard Assessment document, a reviewer questioned whether the SAB of nearby facilities had been reviewed for the effect of the installed 9000-gallon liquid hydrogen tank. Reviews by the facility management and facility safety personnel confirmed the evaluations have not been performed.

Liquid Hydrogen Tank Incident Leads to Second Incident

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

Incident Synopsis
While attempting to replace a rupture disk in a liquid H2 vessel, H2 gas was released and ignited. In fighting the fire, liquid N2 was sprayed onto a second liquid H2 vessel located nearby. This resulted in cracking of the outer mild steel vacuum jacket. The loss of the vacuum caused a rapid increase in pressure and rupture of the burst disk of the second vessel. H2 boiled off and was burned in the fire.

Hydrogen Cryostat Dismantling Incident

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

Incident Synopsis
While a hot air dryer was being used to free a coupling in a hydrogen cryostat (an apparatus used to maintain constant low temperatures), a flash fire occurred. The H2 cryostat was being dismantled.

Causes
The temperature at the center of the cryostat was sufficiently low to liquefy air. The prescribed requirements for purging and bringing the cryostat to room temperature were circumvented. The H2 - air mixture was formed and ignition was assumed to be a spark from an open filament of the dryer.

Liquid Hydrogen Refueling Operational Incident

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

Incident Synopsis
While disconnecting a liquid H2 fill line from a liquid H2 trailer, liquid H2 escaped, burning a second man who was holding the hose. The man was burned on his hands and on his stomach.

Cause
The liquid H2 shut off valve was partially open, but both men assumed it was closed. Prescribed clothing was being worn.

Hydrogen Delivery Truck/ Facility Connection Mishap

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

Incident Synopsis
During transfer of liquid H2 from a commercial tank trailer to a receiving vessel, a leak developed in a bayonet fitting at the trailer/facility connection. The leak produced liquid H2 spray which enveloped the rear of the truck where the hand-operated shutoff valve was located. Emergency trained personnel, wearing protective clothing, except for proper shoes, entered the area and shut off the flow control valve. Reentry personnel suffered frost bite of their feet when shoes became frozen to the water-wetted rear deck of the truck.

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