Potential Un-reviewed Safety Question Due to Liquid Hydrogen Tank Installation

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

Installation of a 9000-gallon liquid hydrogen storage tank by a lessee at a building has not been evaluated for effect on the Safety Authorization Basis (SAB) of nearby facilities.

During review of an Emergency Management Hazard Assessment document, a reviewer questioned whether the SAB of nearby facilities had been reviewed for the effect of the installed 9000-gallon liquid hydrogen tank. Reviews by the facility management and facility safety personnel confirmed the evaluations have not been performed.

Combustible Gas Monitoring System in Furnace Room Found Inoperable

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

During a facility walk-through, it was noted that a combustible gas (hydrogen) monitoring system installed in a furnace room was inoperable (the system had been unplugged). This system is used to detect and warn facility employees of an explosive or flammable environment. An explosive or flammable environment can only occur if there is a leak in the system, which would not be expected to occur during normal operations. When the system was reactivated, no leaks were indicated.

The incident had the following three causes:

Failure to Meet Safety Requirement for Flammable Gas System

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

Facility management confirmed that a hydrogen gas cylinder did not comply with the limiting condition for operation (LCO) for flammable gas control systems in the lab's safety requirements. Earlier erroneous calculations had shown that a release of the entire contents of the cylinder into the hood could not reach the lower flammability limit (LFL).

Reactive Chemical Treatment Causes Beaker to Shatter

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

A violent reaction occurred while hydrolyzing metal in water. The reactive metal treatment began with a review of the chemical inventory and setup of reaction vessels. The sodium metal was cut in shavings and added one at a time to the reaction vessel. After the second addition, an argon purge was added to disperse hydrogen gas faster. After approximately 10 pieces had been treated, the glass beaker shattered, releasing the contents of the reaction vessel (1 liter) inside the hood and causing the chemist's hand to receive superficial cuts.

Hydrogen Storage Siting Incident

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

During an inspection, three potential safety problems were identified concerning the location of a hydrogen storage facility. The hydrogen storage facility is located on a building's roof, which is made of 30-inch-thick reinforced concrete. The following potential safety problems were identified during the inspection:

Failure of Stainless Steel Valves due to Hydrogen Embrittlement

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

Difficulties were experienced with two solenoid-operated globe valves in a charging system. When shut, the valves could not be reopened without securing all charging pumps. During a refueling outage, the two valves were disassembled and examined to determine the cause of the malfunction. It was found that disc guide assembly springs in both valves had undergone complete catastrophic failure. The springs, which initially had 25 coils, were found in sections of only 1-2 coils.

Hydrogen Leak in Auxiliary Building

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

A power plant reported a hydrogen leak inside an auxiliary building. The given plant was in cold shutdown at the time of the event. The discovery of this problem was as a result of an unassociated event involving the activation of a chlorine monitor in the control building. When additional samples indicated no chlorine gas, the shift supervisor ordered further investigation into other plant areas. Because there was no installed detection equipment, portable survey instruments were used to determine gaseous mixtures.

Pressure Testing Leads to Tank Failure

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

Incident Synopsis
During pressure testing of a H2 tank for investigation of quick-release manhole cover, the tank burst at a pressure between 60-67 psig. Flow regulators indicated peak pressure of 67 psig.

Cause
The tank was over pressurized. A mistake was made in interpreting the blueprint, believing the tank was designed to withstand 150 psig, yet the actual design limit was 50.7 psig.

Incorrect Relief Valve Set Point Leads to Explosion

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

Incident Synopsis
During a standard testing procedure, a 3,000 psig relief valve actuated at normal line pressure, releasing gaseous H2. The gaseous H2 combined with air, resulting in an explosion which damaged the test facility.

Cause
The relief valve was improperly set to open at line pressure, and the inspection was inadequate in that it didn't identify this error. Contributing cause was poor design of the venting system, which was installed in a horizontal position, causing inadequate venting and buildup of static electricity.

Hydrogen Storage Vessel Over-Pressurized

First Name
Andy
Last Name
Piatt

Incident Synopsis
During development tests, a gaseous H2 test tank was over pressurized and ruptured. The tank dome was destroyed.

Cause
The pressure relief valves were set too high. In addition, the tank was not depressurized while being worked on. Safe distances, as required by the procedures for personnel safety, were not followed.

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