A pressure relief device (frangible burst disk) on one of a hydrogen delivery tube trailer's 26 tubes failed prematurely and released hydrogen while filling a hydrogen storage tank at a government facility (see Attachment 1). Prior to the filling process, all procedures and safety checks, including connection to the facility's regulator/distribution control system with leak checking and follow-up verification of leak checking by facility personnel, were completed (see Attachment 2 for more details). During the filling process, a person walking near the facility heard the noise of escaping gas that included occasional popping sounds typical of bursts of gas release. Facility personnel were alerted and the tube trailer vendor's incident response team was dispatched to the view more
In early afternoon, a northbound tractor-semitrailer with horizontally mounted tubes filled with compressed hydrogen at approximately 2400 psi (166 bar) was struck by a northbound pickup truck that veered into the semitrailer's right rear axle. According to witnesses, the tractor-semitrailer then went out of control and left the roadway, coming to rest approximately 300 feet (91 meters) from the point of impact. As a result of rotational torque and impact, the end of one tube was sheared off at the bulkhead and left the tube bundle. During the process, some of the tubes, valves, piping, and fittings at the rear of the semitrailer were damaged and released hydrogen. The hydrogen ignited and burned the rear of the semitrailer. In the meantime, the pickup truck had also run off the view more
A leaking liquid hydrogen cryogenic pump shaft during the process of filling a gaseous tube delivery trailer to 2400 psi at a liquid hydrogen transfilling location caused a series of explosions and a fire. After approximately 30 minutes of filling, the operator heard a single loud explosion and then saw flames and ripples from heat generation near the ground in the hydrogen fill area. The operator quickly actuated the emergency alarm system that shut down the cryogenic pump and closed the air-actuated valves on the cryogenic pump supply line. After this shutdown, three smaller explosions were heard as well as the sound of gas releasing from a safety relief valve. The fire department was called to the scene and participated in the final shutdown of the hydrogen system as the fire was view more
Near the end of the process of filling a gaseous hydrogen tube trailer at a liquid hydrogen transfilling station, a safety pressure-relief device (PRD) rupture disc on one of the tube trailer’s ten tubes burst and vented hydrogen gas. The PRD vent tube directed gas to the top of the trailer where the hydrogen vented and ignited, blowing a flame straight up in the air. The operator filling the tube trailer heard a loud explosion from the sudden release of hydrogen gas and saw flames immediately. The operator closed the main fill valve on the tube trailer, stopping the hydrogen fill; however, the ten cylinders on the tube trailer were almost full (2500 psig/173 bar). The tube trailer involved in this incident was one of two tube trailers being filled simultaneously and was second in a view more
A hydrogen leak occurred at a plant's hydrogen fill station when a vendor's hydrogen fill truck trailer pulled away after filling and caught an improperly stored hydrogen fill line. The driver of the hydrogen truck trailer did not properly stow the hydrogen fill line after filling and failed to verify that the hydrogen fill line was clear of the trailer prior to departure. As the driver pulled away from the fill station, the hydrogen fill line caught on the trailer and subsequently pulled on the hydrogen fill station's ground storage tubes distribution manifold. The force of this pull bent the plant's hydrogen distribution manifold and hydrogen began leaking from a threaded connection and from the hydrogen fill line. The truck trailer driver reported hearing a view more
A hydrogen leak and subsequent explosion occurred when tie-downs on a hydrogen transport trailer securing hydrogen cylinder packages failed. The tie-down failure caused the hydrogen cylinder packages to fall off the trailer and eject some cylinders onto the roadway (see Figure 1). The cause of the accident is unknown, but it appears to be unrelated to hydrogen (i.e., likely tie-down strap weakness or error in properly securing tie-downs). The cylinders contained compressed hydrogen gas at 200 bar (2900 psi). The accident caused some hydrogen cylinders to leak and the associated cylinder package plumbing systems were breached. A spark or other local heat source (e.g., from a nearby vehicle motor) ignited the leaking hydrogen and caused a deflagration/explosion that damaged a car view more
A hydrogen leak occurred when hydrogen tube trailer traveling on a rural roadway left the road, overturned on its side, and resulted in a single hydrogen tube valve being opened or broken. The cause of the accident is unknown, however, it appears to be unrelated to hydrogen (i.e., it is likely that human driving errors caused the accident). The hydrogen tubes contained compressed hydrogen gas at 200 bar (2,900 psi). The back end of the tube trailer containing the high-pressure hydrogen plumbing and valves contacted the ground and resulted in the valve opening or breaking and losing all the hydrogen from one tube. The tube/valve that leaked was located on the bottom tier in the center position. The first firefighter crew to arrive at the accident scene verified that the leakage was view more
A hydrogen fire occurred in an early morning accident involving a hydrogen tube trailer and multiple vehicles on a rural highway. The cause of the collision is unknown, however, it appears to be unrelated to hydrogen (i.e., it was likely human driving errors). The hydrogen tubes contained compressed hydrogen gas at a pressure of 15 bar (218 psi). The accident caused a leak in the hydrogen plumbing system and deformed one of the hydrogen tubes, resulting in a 10-centimeter (4-inch) longitudinal crack from which hydrogen began to leak (see Figures 1 and 2). Fire from the conventional vehicles trapped under the hydrogen tube trailer during the accident ignited combustible components on the tube trailer (tires and fuel/oil), and subsequently the leaking hydrogen. Emergency crews arrived view more
An explosion at a coal-fired power plant killed one person and injured 10 others. The blast killed the delivery truck driver who was unloading compressed hydrogen gas, which is used to cool the plant's steam generators. Hydrogen deliveries are routine at the plant, occurring about once a week. Evidence pointed to the premature failure of a pressure-relief device (PRD) rupture disk, which had been repaired by the vendor six months prior to the explosion.
A H2 delivery truck accident occurred on a highway. The truck was pulling a trailer containing gaseous H2. Upon entering a sharp curve, the truck and trailer started to weave and pushed to the side of the road. The truck and trailer rolled about 40 feet downhill; the trailer rolled over 1 1/2 times and the tractor once, ending in the upright position with the driver still in his seat. The truck was completely totaled, but little damage was incurred by the trailer. The trailer shell was satisfactory with normal venting through the stack. The rear cabinet doors were warped shut.
The accident occurred on a bad road, which was steep with many sharp curves. The driver was going too fast for the road conditions and the type of trailer being view more