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Disclaimer- The documents and references herein are for information purposes only and should not be construed as endorsement by the Hydrogen Safety Panel.
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Ammonia and hydrogen represent opposite ends of the spectrum with regard to the potential blast loading resulting from an accidental vapor cloud explosion (VCE), although many in industry have expressed doubts as to whether either of these fuels actually pose a VCE hazard. Ammonia is some-times discounted as a VCE hazard due to the perceived difficulty in igniting an ammonia-air mixture and/or because of its low laminar burning velocity. Hydrogen is sometimes discounted as a VCE hazard due to the ease with which a hydrogen-air mixture can be ignited and/or because of its buoy-ancy.
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Potential for Hydrogen DDT with Ambient Vaporizers
J.K. Thomas
J. Geng
O. Rodriguez
The ignition of a hydrogen-air mixture that has engulfed a typical set of ambient vaporizers (i.e., an array of finned tubes) may result in a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT). Simplified curve-based vapor cloud explosion (VCE) blast load prediction methods, such as the Baker-Strehlow-Tang (BST) method, would predict a DDT given that typical ambient vaporizerswould be rated as medium or high congestion and hydrogen is a high reactivity fuel (i.e., high laminar burning velocity).
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