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Disclaimer- The documents and references herein are for information purposes only and should not be construed as endorsement by the Hydrogen Safety Panel.
This document provides an example safety plan in Attachment A associated with hydrogen and fuel cells, where there is a significant flammability or explosive hazard from quantities, pressures, exposures, or other conditions. Hydrogen is unique among flammable gases in that small quantities may result in ignition or explosions. This example safety plan was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and its Hydrogen Safety Panel (HSP) members to assist entities working with hydrogen to ensure the protection of life, property, and the environment.
This report provides an evaluation by members of the Hydrogen Safety Panel (HSP) of the June 1, 2019 hydrogen release incident at the Air Products and Chemicals Inc. (Air Products) hydrogen trailer transfill (transfill) facility located in Santa Clara, California. This review was requested by the California Energy Commission (CEC) in May 2020 and examines data from Air Products, and the Santa Clara Fire Department to provide an HSP perspective on the incident cause, response, and recommended follow-up actions. 
Hydrogen Incident Recovery Guide
Hydrogen Safety Panel
This document applies to the recovery phase of a typical emergency management framework that includes planning, response, mitigation, and recovery. This document provides practical guidance with a checklist to help an organization recover from a hydrogen incident and return to normal operations after the event scene has been stabilized and returned to the organization by the incident commander. This document does not include activities related to the immediate emergency response and initial investigations performed by other entities.
The Baker-Strehlow-Tang vapor cloud explosion (VCE) blast load prediction methodology utilizes flame speed as a measure of explosion severity. In previous publications, guidance has been presented for selecting flame speeds as a function of congestion, confinement, and fuel reactivity. These recommended values were based on empirical data available from the literature.
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The three-year HyTunnel CS project culminated in the report titled Deliverable D6.9, “Recommendations for inherently safer use of hydrogen vehicles in underground traffic systems.” The HyTunnel CS project aimed to perform pre-normative research for the safety of hydrogen-fueled vehicles traveling through tunnels or entering confined spaces. The main objective was to compare the relative risk of hydrogen vehicles entering underground traffic systems to existing fossil fuel-powered vehicles [1].
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Sodium chloride and four or five other particulate materials have been used successfully as fire suppression agents for specific combustible metal fires. The certification testing and National Fire Protection Association recommendations for using these suppression agents are summarized here. The sodium chloride based agent and ordinary sand have also been used in some sodium hydride fires, and in a sodium hydride fire test series.
The information in this document provides answers to the questions that were raised during the Center for Hydrogen Safety April 27, 2023 webinar. The Q&As are sorted by topic with the question number for reference. The Q&As are sorted by topic with the question number for reference. Redundant questions were deleted from the original list.
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Vented Hydrogen DDTs Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in a Vented Hydrogen Explosion
B. Bang
B. Horn
Y. Kim
M. Lee
D.R. Malik
O. Rodriguez
J.K. Thomas
Baker Engineering and Risk Consultants, Inc. (BakerRisk®) and Daewoo Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd. (Daewoo) performed vented (i.e., partially-confined) vapor cloud explosion (VCE) tests with both propane and lean hydrogen mixtures. BakerRisk’s Deflagration Load Generator (DLG) test rig was used to perform the tests. The DLG test rig was designed primarily to produce centrally-peaked blast waves that are representative of VCEs suitable for blast loading test articles, but has also been used for vented deflagration testing.
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