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The 2020 U.S. Conference on Hydrogen Safety will convene academia, industry, and government representatives to discuss and learn about best practices, lessons learned, and safety experiences across a wide range of hydrogen applications. Hear from the experts on the safe handling and use of hydrogen in applications ranging from renewable energy power generation, to transportation, to emerging industries; and network with your peers and colleagues to stay abreast of hydrogen safety learnings from demonstration and commercialization projects.

Hydrogen is not new, it's been in widespread industrial use for more than 50 years and codes, standards, and design practices have been developed to enable safe use.

All fuels contain energy and can be hazardous if handled improperly. Like other fuels, hydrogen must be used with care in systems designed around its unique properties. Hydrogen fueling stations and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) are designed in accordance with established safety standards to ensure their safety.

FCEVs are cleaner and more efficient than traditional combustion-based engines. Hydrogen FCEVs combine hydrogen stored in a cylinder with oxygen from the air to
produce electricity, with water vapor as the by-product.

A Sandia National Laboratories Resource

Guidance on materials selection for hydrogen service is needed to support the deployment of hydrogen as a fuel as well as the development of codes and standards for stationary hydrogen use, hydrogen vehicles, refueling stations, and hydrogen transportation. Materials property measurement is needed on deformation, fracture and fatigue of metals in environments relevant to this hydrogen economy infrastructure. The identification of hydrogen-affected material properties such as strength, fracture resistance and fatigue resistance are high priorities to ensure the safe design of load-bearing structures.

To support the needs of the hydrogen community, Sandia National Laboratories is conducting an extensive review of reports and journal publications to gather existing materials data for inclusion in the Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials. Additionally, Sandia is working internationally with collaborators to acquire newly generated data for inclusion in the Technical Reference. 

 is an archival report issued by Sandia National Laboratories representing the reference information compiled as of September 2012. Individual sections of this report may be updated or added periodically at this website.

Metal Type: Plain Carbon Ferritic Steels
Sub Metal Type Designation Norminal Composition Revision Section
C-Mn Alloys Fe-C-Mn 5/07 1100
Metal Type: Aluminum Alloys
Sub Metal Type Designation Norminal Composition Revision Section
Heat Treatable Alloys 7XXX-series alloys Al-Zn-Mg-Cu 5/09 3230
Heat Treatable Alloys 2XXX-series alloys Al-Cu 5/09 3210
Heat Treatable Alloys 6XXX-series alloys Al-Mg-Si
Pure Aluminum Al 4/07 3101
Metal Type: Austenitic Steels
Sub Metal Type Designation Norminal Composition Revision Section
Heat Treatable Alloys Fe-Ni-Co Sealing Alloys Fe–28Ni–20Co 10/05 2401
Precipitation-Strengthened Stainless Alloys A-286 Fe–25Ni–15Cr+Ti+Mo 5/05 2301
Nitrogen-Strengthened Stainless Alloys 21-6-9 Fe–21Cr–6Ni–9Mn+N 5/05 2202
Nitrogen-Strengthened Stainless Alloys 22-13-5 Fe–22Cr–13Ni–5Mn–2.5Mo+N 1/05 2201
300-Series Stainless Alloys Type 321 & 347 Fe–18Cr–10Ni + Ti/Nb 12/08 2104
300-Series Stainless Alloys Type 316 & 316L Fe–18Cr–12Ni+Mo 3/05 2103
300-Series Stainless Alloys Type 304 & 304L Fe–19Cr–10Ni 5/05 2101
Metal Type: High-Alloy Ferritic Steels
Sub Metal Type Designation Norminal Composition Revision Section
Martensitic Stainless Steels Heat Treatable Fe–Cr 6/08 1820
Martensitic Stainless Steels Precipitation-Strengthened Fe–Cr–Ni 3/08 1810
Duplex Stainless Steels Fe–22Cr–5Ni+Mo 9/08 1600
Semi-Austenitic Stainless Steels Fe–15Cr–7Ni 3/08 1700
Ferritic Stainless Steels Fe–15Cr 10/06 1500
High-Strength Steels 9Ni-4Co Fe–9Ni–4Co-0.20C 1/05 1401
Metal Type: Low-Alloy Ferritic Steels
Sub Metal Type Designation Norminal Composition Revision Section
Quenched & Tempered Steels Ni-Cr-Mo Alloys Fe–Ni–Cr–Mo 12/05 1212
Quenched & Tempered Steels Cr-Mo Alloys Fe–Cr–Mo 12/05 1211
Metal Type: Copper Alloys
Sub Metal Type Designation Norminal Composition Revision Section
Pure Copper Cu 5/06 4001
Metal Type: Nonmetals
Sub Metal Type Designation Norminal Composition Revision Section
Polymers 5/08 8100

Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) is a project launched by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The project leverages capabilities at the national laboratories to address the technology challenges related to hydrogen refueling stations. Led by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and supported by a broad array of public and private partners, the H2FIRST project is a strong example of DOE’s efforts to bring national lab capabilities and facilities to bear on both immediate and mid-term challenges faced by industry. H2FIRST was established by DOE’s FCTO directly in support of H2USA, a public-private partnership co-launched by DOE and industry in 2013.

Project Objective

The H2FIRST objective is to ensure that fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) customers have a positive fueling experience similar to conventional gasoline/diesel stations as vehicles are introduced (2015–2017) and transition to advanced fueling technology beyond 2017. The H2FIRST activities are expected to positively impact the cost, reliability, safety, and consumer experience of FCEV stations.


H2FIRST includes technical work in support of H2USA to fill the most critical gaps and needs for achieving a better-performing, less-expensive hydrogen fueling infrastructure. The project scope includes:

  • Development and physical testing of components and systems
  • Numerical simulation
  • Technology validation
  • Identification and development of low-cost, high-performance materials
  • Systems and station architecture design.

A process is in place to help identify new H2FIRST activities and ensure that the project is addressing the national needs associated with hydrogen station technology research and development.

Get Involved

Hydrogen fueling station stakeholders are welcome to consider participating in the H2FIRST project. Opportunities for involvement include participation in the H2USA stations working group, H2FIRST Coordination Panel, and H2FIRST Project Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs), or responding to requests for quotation issued by the H2FIRST principal investigators (PIs). The Coordination Panel consists of individuals associated with the H2USA Hydrogen Fueling Stations Working Group (HFSWG) and the H2FIRST PIs from each laboratory. Participation in the Coordination Panel is open to industry representatives who are active in the HFSWG.

Alex Schroeder

National Renewable Energy Laboratory

Rachel Wallace

Strategic Partnerships
Sandia National Laboratories
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