This paper presents results from an experimental study of vented hydrogen deflagrations in 20-foot ISO containers. The scenarios investigated include 14 tests with explosion venting through the doors of the containers, and 20 tests with venting through openings in the roof. The parameters investigated include hydrogen concentration, vent area, type of venting device, and the level of congestion inside the containers. All tests involved homogeneous and initially quiescent hydrogen-air mixtures. The results demonstrate the strong effect of congestion on the maximum reduced explosion pressures, which typically is not accounted for in current standards and guidelines for explosion protection. The work is a deliverable from work package 2 (WP2) in the project “Improving hydrogen safety for energy applications through pre-normative research on vented deflagrations”, or HySEA (www.hysea.eu), which receives funding from the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH JU) under grant agreement no. 671461.
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