Experiments on flame propagation regimes in a turbulent hydrogen jet with velocity and hydrogen concentration gradients have been performed at the FZK hydrogen test site HYKA. Horizontal stationary hydrogen jets released at normal and cryogenic temperatures of 290K and 80 and 35K with different nozzle diameters and mass flow rates in the range from 0.3 to 6.5 g/s have been investigated. Sampling probe method and laser PIV technique have been used to evaluate distribution of hydrogen concentration and flow velocity along and across the jet axis. High-speed photography (1000 fps) combined with a Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) system was used for the visual observation of the turbulent flame propagation. In order to investigate different flame propagation regimes the ignition position was changed along the jet axis. It was found that the maximum flame velocity and pressure loads can only occur if the hydrogen concentration at the ignition point exceeds 11%2of hydrogen in air. In this case the flame propagates in both directions, up- and downstream the jet flow, whereas in the opposite case, the flame propagates only downstream. Such a behavior is consistent with previous experiments, according to that the flame is able to accelerate effectively only if the expansion rate of the H2-air mixture is higher than a critical value * = 3.75 (like for the 11%2hydrogen-air mixture). The measured data allow conservative estimates of the safety distance and risk assessment for realistic hydrogen leaks.
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