Amer Soc Mechanical Engineers
Hydrogen utilization in spark ignition engines could reduce urban pollution including particulate matter as well as greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide) emission. However, backfiring, which is an undesirable combustion process of intake charge in hydrogen fuelled spark ignition (SI) engine with manifold based injection, is one of the major technical issues in view of safety as well as continuous engine operation as ignition process could proceed instantaneously due to less ignition energy requirement of hydrogen. Backfiring occurs generally during suction stroke as the hydrogen-air charge interacts with residual gas resulting in flame growth and propagation towards upstream of engine's intake manifold resulting in stalling of engine operation and high risk of safety. This work is aimed at analysis of backfiring in a hydrogen fuelled SI engine. The results indicate that backfiring is mainly function of residual gas temperature, start of hydrogen injection timing and equivalence ratio. Any hot-spot present in the cylinder would act as ignition source resulting in more chances of backfiring. In addition to this, CM) analysis was carried out in order to assess flow characteristics of hydrogen and air during suction stroke in intake manifold. Furthermore, numerical analysis of intake charge velocity, flame speed (deflagration), and flame propagation (backfiring) towards upstream of intake manifold was also carried out. Some notable points of backfiring control strategy including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and retarded (late) hydrogen injection timing are emerged from this study for minimizing chance of backfiring. This study results are useful for development of dedicated spark ignition engine for hydrogen fuel in the aspects of elimination of backfiring.