Safe, long range, inexpensive and rapidly refuelable hydrogen vehicles with cryogenic pressure vessels
Hydrogen storage is often cited as the greatest obstacle to achieving a hydrogen economy free of environmental pollution and dependence on foreign oil. A compact high-pressure cryogenic storage system has promising features to the storage challenge associated with hydrogen-powered vehicles. Cryogenic pressure vessels consist of an inner vessel designed for high pressure (350 bar) insulated with reflective sheets of metalized plastic and enclosed within an outer metallic vacuum jacket.
We have developed a web-based hydrogen safety class and are developing a hands-on hydrogen safety class. The 4-h web-based class is directed to laboratory researchers who need basic hydrogen safety information (free online access at http://www.h2labsafety.org/), and it addresses hydrogen fundamentals: properties, pressure and cryogenic safety, emergency response and codes and standards.
In considering structural materials for fusion reactors a detailed understanding of the transport parameters and solubility of hydrogen and its isotopes is an important issue which deal with safety and blanket performance aspects. The experimental activities were focused on the determination of hydrogen/deuterium transport parameters through Eurofer 97 in the temperature range 423+723K using a time dependant permeation technique The hydrogen permeation and diffusivity at room temperature and density of trapping sites were also evaluated using Devanathan's technique.
Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry: An Emerging Biophysical Tool for Probing Protein Behaviour and Higher-Order Structure
The higher-order structure (HOS) of a protein (secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure) is important for proper biological function. Analytically measuring the HOS properties of a biotherapeutic and understanding the relationships between structure and function are important, because they directly influence a drug's efficacy and safety. This article looks at how hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS), an MS-based labelling approach, has begun to serve as a means for performing routine biophysical analysis.
Leading physical and materials-based hydrogen storage options are evaluated for their potential to meet the vehicular targets for gravimetric and volumetric capacity, cost, efficiency, durability and operability, fuel purity, and environmental health and safety. Our analyses show that hydrogen stored as a compressed gas at 350-700 bar in Type III or Type IV tanks cannot meet the near-term volumetric target of 28 g/L. The problems of dormancy and hydrogen loss with conventional liquid H-2 storage can be mitigated by deploying pressure-bearing insulated tanks.
Hydrogen based electric systems can be used as a substitute for large battery banks in distribution systems, especially in applications where there is a big concern for environmental safety. Recent advances in hydrogen technologies allow the conversion back and forth between electric energy and hydrogen; increasing efficiency and reducing costs. A bidirectional Multilevel Current Source Inverter (MCSI) is used to interconnect an electrolyzer and a fuel cell within a low voltage distribution system.
Analysis and simulation of a hydrogen based electric system to improve power quality in distributed grids
Recent advances in hydrogen technologies allow the conversion between electric energy and hydrogen, increasing efficiency and reducing costs. Electric systems based on Hydrogen technology can be used to replace large battery banks in distribution systems, especially in green applications or where there is a big concern for environmental safety. A hydrogen based energy system with storage at high pressure allows smoothing the power variations which appear in electrical systems with a considerable proportion of wind and/or solar generation.
A study on the scaling features for mixing and deflagration potential of stratified layer of hydrogen due to molecular diffusion
Hydrogen deflagration in confined spaces is an important safety issue. The dispersion of a stratified layer of hydrogen due to molecular diffusion is studied. It represents an important class of problems related to long term behaviour of hydrogen release in confined spaces. Diffusion being a slow process, gives an upper bound on the time taken for the stratified layer to mix with air below.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF RADIATION-HETEREGENEOUS PROCESSES TO HYDROGEN SAFETY OF WATER COOLED NUCLEAR REACTORS
In the represented work the experimental results on the study of the accumulation of molecular hydrogen in radiation and radiation-thermal heterogeneous processes in connection of metallic zirconium and stainless steel with water were summarized. Besides this, it was shown that the results obtained serve as a base for checking the scenarios of normal and emergency conditions of nuclear reactors refrigerated by water.