A small research sample of approximately 5 grams of aluminum hydride (alane) doped with 2-3 mol % TiCl3 contained within a glass ampoule ruptured after transit while stored in an office cabinet. The rupture was attributed to over-pressurization caused by hydrogen gas buildup within the sample over a four-month period. The glass ampoule, contained within a 0.2-inch thick cardboard shipping tube, was not a pressure-rated container. The rupture resulted in glass chards penetrating the protective cardboard shipping tube. The aluminum hydride, a fine powder, was released from the shipping tube during the pressure release. The fine aluminum powder leaked from the cabinet and set off a local smoke alarm that brought emergency responders to the scene. No personnel were present in the area when view more

A student cleaned catalyst that was being used for a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly from a spatula. He then placed the contaminated paper towel into a waste container that contained other waste that was wet with alcohol. The alcohol reacted with the catalyst, igniting a fire within the waste container. The fire was extinguished with a beaker of water.

An explosion occurred within the hydrogen processing system of a chemical plant that produces sodium chlorate for bleaching pulp and paper. The chemical process utilizes electrolytic cells and is pH-dependent. Hydrogen is produced as a byproduct and is utilized as a fuel.

At the time of the incident, the plant was at an abnormal operating level of 25% capacity. A non-routine maintenance operation to repair high-pH liquid piping was in progress. To assist, operations personnel rerouted the high-pH liquid stream to the plant sump. However, in doing this, the liquid eventually made its way back into the electrolytic process by design. Ultimately this created the root cause of the explosive condition in that the pH of the electrolytic process increased faster than the computer- view more

A hydrogen leak and subsequent explosion occurred when tie-downs on a hydrogen transport trailer securing hydrogen cylinder packages failed. The tie-down failure caused the hydrogen cylinder packages to fall off the trailer and eject some cylinders onto the roadway (see Figure 1). The cause of the accident is unknown, but it appears to be unrelated to hydrogen (i.e., likely tie-down strap weakness or error in properly securing tie-downs). The cylinders contained compressed hydrogen gas at 200 bar (2900 psi). The accident caused some hydrogen cylinders to leak and the associated cylinder package plumbing systems were breached. A spark or other local heat source (e.g., from a nearby vehicle motor) ignited the leaking hydrogen and caused a deflagration/explosion that damaged a car view more

A hydrogen leak occurred when hydrogen tube trailer traveling on a rural roadway left the road, overturned on its side, and resulted in a single hydrogen tube valve being opened or broken. The cause of the accident is unknown, however, it appears to be unrelated to hydrogen (i.e., it is likely that human driving errors caused the accident). The hydrogen tubes contained compressed hydrogen gas at 200 bar (2,900 psi). The back end of the tube trailer containing the high-pressure hydrogen plumbing and valves contacted the ground and resulted in the valve opening or breaking and losing all the hydrogen from one tube. The tube/valve that leaked was located on the bottom tier in the center position. The first firefighter crew to arrive at the accident scene verified that the leakage was view more

A hydrogen fire occurred in an early morning accident involving a hydrogen tube trailer and multiple vehicles on a rural highway. The cause of the collision is unknown, however, it appears to be unrelated to hydrogen (i.e., it was likely human driving errors). The hydrogen tubes contained compressed hydrogen gas at a pressure of 15 bar (218 psi). The accident caused a leak in the hydrogen plumbing system and deformed one of the hydrogen tubes, resulting in a 10-centimeter (4-inch) longitudinal crack from which hydrogen began to leak (see Figures 1 and 2). Fire from the conventional vehicles trapped under the hydrogen tube trailer during the accident ignited combustible components on the tube trailer (tires and fuel/oil), and subsequently the leaking hydrogen. Emergency crews arrived view more

During normal operations, a two-inch flame was discovered emanating from a pinhole leak in a hydrogen line at an aircraft parts manufacturing facility. Hydrogen was not in use by any process in the facility at the time. The flame was discovered by a contractor who was about to start welding on scaffolding about 3-5 feet away. Before starting, the welder searched the immediate area for any signs of fire per his training. When he spotted the flame, he called his supervisor.

An operator tried to put out the fire with a fire extinguisher, which resulted in the flame enlarging by one inch. All employees and contractors were instructed to leave the area, and the EHS team leader called 911 and informed the fire department that there was a hydrogen fire at the facility. She then put an view more

During a refueling event, the operator activated the fueling lever in the wrong sequence. The vehicle filled to proper pressure, but filled faster than normal. Under different circumstances, this could have resulted in overheating of the receiving fuel tank.

A fire began in the compression skid for a high-pressure hydrogen fueling station. The initial source of fire was likely a release of hydrogen from a failed weld on a pressure switch. The initial fire cascaded to three stainless steel line failures, release of glycol coolant, and release/combustion of compressor oil. Non-metallic seals and hoses containing hydraulic fluid and coolant melted/burned and caused leakage of the fluid, which was mostly consumed by the fire. The local fire department responded and contained the situation by shutting off the power supply and spraying water on nearby equipment. The compressor skid was a loss and the fire caused moderate damage to surrounding equipment.

Hydrogen leaked from a 9,000-gallon horizontal liquid hydrogen tank in the rear of a high-intensity lamp manufacturing facility. The facility manager noticed the leak during his normal morning rounds and initiated the plant's emergency response policy, which included calling the local fire department. A large vapor plume (actually condensed moisture in the air) was visible 200 feet above the tank. The technician for the hydrogen supplier arrived on site, thawed out the ice buildup around the gland nut from which the leak originated using warm water, and tightened the nut, thus ending the problem. The technician verified that the leak originated from packing material around the valve that had come loose because of the recent extreme cold weather.

The fire department view more