In the fall of 2007, the operations team began a procedure (a written procedure was being followed) to sample the liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage vessels ("tanks"), and associated transfer system. This procedure was being performed to determine the conditions within the system, and if necessary, to purge the system of any excess gaseous hydrogen (GH2) in preparation for reactivation of the system. The system had not been used since 2003.

The LH2 storage system contains two (2) spherical pressure vessels of 225,000 gallons in volume, with a maximum working pressure (MAWP) of 50 psig. Eight-inch transfer piping connects them to the usage point. Operations began with activation of the burnstack for the LH2 storage area. Pneumatic gaseous nitrogen (GN2) systems in the view more

A hydrogen explosion occurred in a university biochemistry laboratory. Four persons were taken to the hospital for injuries. Three of these were treated and released shortly thereafter; the fourth was kept overnight and released the following evening. All of the exterior windows in the laboratory were blown out and there was significant damage within the laboratory. One sprinkler was activated that controlled a fire associated with a compressed hydrogen gas cylinder.

First responders from the local community and the university campus were quickly on the scene. Once the injured were attended to and the site secured, response efforts focused first on assessing potential hazards (electrical, fire, hazardous materials, etc). Campus personnel worked into the night to board up windows view more

Severe vibrations caused by broken low-pressure turbine blades damaged the main turbine generator at a nuclear power plant. These vibrations also caused multiple hydrogen leaks at equipment connections to the generator, resulting in hydrogen flames outside of the generator casing that caused minimal damage to the facility. Hydrogen is used to internally cool the plant's electric generators. Water from the fire suppression system and oil released from the turbine lube oil system during the event were contained within the plant, resulting in no impact to the environment. The plant's nuclear systems were unaffected by the event.

During a test run of a hybrid, fuel-cell-powered passenger ship, the on-board lead-acid batteries overheated, resulting a fire in the battery compartment. The local fire department was able to quickly put the fire out.The batteries had been replaced a few days prior from the battery supplier and were in the process of being tested for the first time on the river.The batteries are charged slowly from the fuel cell and the power is made available for cast-off and driving maneuvers.It was systematically confirmed that the fire, which was comparable to a conventional cable fire, posed no risk to the fuel cells or the hydrogen storage tanks. There was never a danger to the captain or crew, and the fire department confirmed that there was never a risk of fire spreading to the other view more

A rupture disc blew on a 20,000-gallon liquid hydrogen tank, causing the vent stack to exhaust cold gaseous hydrogen. Emergency responders were called to the scene. To stabilize the tank, the remaining hydrogen was removed from the tank except for a small volume in the heel of the tank that could not be removed manually. The tank vacuum was lost. Firemen sprayed the tank with water and directed a stream onto the fire exiting the vent stack. The water was channeled directly into the open vent stack, and the exiting residual hydrogen gas (between -423 F and -402 F) caused the water in the vent stack to freeze. The water freezing caused the vent stack to be sealed off, disabling the only exit for the cold hydrogen gas. After a time, the residual hydrogen gas in the tank warmed up, causing view more

Several parties were involved in hydrogen quality sampling when it was discovered that a hose which was being used in the collection process, connecting two sampling components, was not rated for the pressure to which it was being subjected. Upon discovery, the process was stopped, the hose was removed, and an alternate configuration of the equipment was implemented before carrying on the sampling.

An isolated vehicle hydrogen tank needed to be de-fueled, but the standard operating procedure could not be followed because the tank was inoperable and had to be manually vented with a special tool. This intentional release of hydrogen was done outside an R&D facility, but it unintentionally activated two sensors on vehicle bay gas detectors (at 20% LFL) in the adjacent indoor facility. Although each person involved in this activity was qualified to perform the work, the circumstances at the time were unusual.

During maintenance on a breakaway fitting, a review of the pressure rating of the adapter fitting connecting the pipe to the breakaway found the adapter to be under rated for the design pressure. While the male straight-thread side of the "standard" fitting was rated to 7700 psig, the female compression-tube end of the same fitting was rated to only 4900 psig. The adapter was replaced with a fitting of increased wall thickness meeting the design pressure rating.

The cap on a full cylinder of hydrogen was difficult to remove. A wrench was applied to turn the cap. When the cap was turned, a part of the wrench contacted the valve and opened it. Since the cap was still on the cylinder, the valve could not be closed. The area was evacuated until the cylinder had emptied.

A fatal accident took place at an onshore processing facility for slop water from the offshore petroleum industry.

Drilling fluids, or mud, are typically oil-water emulsions consisting of base oil (continuous phase), water (dispersed phase), and emulsifying agents. Used drilling mud, or slop, is mud enriched with water and rock cuttings from drilling --- typically 60-80% water, 10-20% emulated base oil, and 10-20% rock cuttings. The used drilling fluids are collected in slop tanks on oil platforms and later shipped to onshore facilities for further processing.

On the day of the accident, two operators were trying to remove the lid from a manhole on top of a 1600-cubic meter storage tank. However, they were not able to unscrew the rusted bolts holding the lid in place, and view more