A rupture disc blew on a 20,000-gallon liquid hydrogen tank, causing the vent stack to exhaust cold gaseous hydrogen. Emergency responders were called to the scene. To stabilize the tank, the remaining hydrogen was removed from the tank except for a small volume in the heel of the tank that could not be removed manually. The tank vacuum was lost. Firemen sprayed the tank with water and directed a stream onto the fire exiting the vent stack. The water was channeled directly into the open vent stack, and the exiting residual hydrogen gas (between -423 F and -402 F) caused the water in the vent stack to freeze. The water freezing caused the vent stack to be sealed off, disabling the only exit for the cold hydrogen gas. After a time, the residual hydrogen gas in the tank warmed up, causing view more

A fatal accident took place at an onshore processing facility for slop water from the offshore petroleum industry.

Drilling fluids, or mud, are typically oil-water emulsions consisting of base oil (continuous phase), water (dispersed phase), and emulsifying agents. Used drilling mud, or slop, is mud enriched with water and rock cuttings from drilling --- typically 60-80% water, 10-20% emulated base oil, and 10-20% rock cuttings. The used drilling fluids are collected in slop tanks on oil platforms and later shipped to onshore facilities for further processing.

On the day of the accident, two operators were trying to remove the lid from a manhole on top of a 1600-cubic meter storage tank. However, they were not able to unscrew the rusted bolts holding the lid in place, and view more

A refinery hydrocracker effluent pipe section ruptured and released a mixture of gases, including hydrogen, which instantly ignited on contact with the air, causing an explosion and a fire. Excessive high temperature, likely in excess of 1400°F (760°C), initiated in one of the reactor beds spread to adjacent beds and raised the temperature and pressure of the effluent piping to the point where it failed. An operator who was checking a field temperature panel at the base of the reactor and trying to diagnose the high-temperature problem was killed. A total of 46 other plant personnel were injured and 13 of these were taken to local hospitals, treated, and released. There were no reported injuries to the public.

Property damage included an 18-inch (46-centimeter) long tear in the view more

A hydrogen reformer furnace at a refinery was shutdown for maintenance to remove and cap the inlet and outlet headers of some radiant tubes that had previously developed hot spots and been isolated by externally pinching them off at the inlet. A decision was made to leave steam in the steam-generating circuit during this maintenance operation to prevent freezing. After maintenance was complete, the startup procedure required the furnace to be first heated up to 350°C (662°F) prior to introducing 4136 kPa (600 psig) steam into the radiant tubes. Just after the 4136 kPa (600 psig) startup steam was introduced into the reformer furnace inlet, the control room alarm journal reported an extreme positive pressure spike at the same time a single loud bang was reported by the operations view more

SummaryA fire occurred in a battery manufacturing plant that was about to cease operations for the night. The fire caused an estimated $2.4 million in property damage when an electrical source ignited combustible hydrogen vapors.BackgroundThe incident occurred in the forming room, where wet cell batteries were stored for charging on metal racks. The facility had a wet-pipe sprinkler system, but no automatic hydrogen detection equipment.Incident SynopsisAt 11:52 pm, a security guard on patrol noticed a free burning fire in the forming room and notified the fire department. It took fire fighters almost three hours to bring the fire under control.Although the facility was equipped with a wet-pipe sprinkler system, the forming room's branch had been disconnected 10 to 15 years before view more

Incident Synopsis
A H2 delivery truck accident occurred on a highway. The truck was pulling a trailer containing gaseous H2. Upon entering a sharp curve, the truck and trailer started to weave and pushed to the side of the road. The truck and trailer rolled about 40 feet downhill; the trailer rolled over 1 1/2 times and the tractor once, ending in the upright position with the driver still in his seat. The truck was completely totaled, but little damage was incurred by the trailer. The trailer shell was satisfactory with normal venting through the stack. The rear cabinet doors were warped shut.

Cause

The accident occurred on a bad road, which was steep with many sharp curves. The driver was going too fast for the road conditions and the type of trailer being view more

Incident Synopsis

A hydrogen explosion occurred in an emergency battery container used to transfer fuel elements. The container had five emergency power batteries. Damage was incurred by the explosion.

Cause

The H2 concentration in the container increased because the battery charger had been left on charge. In addition, the container was placed in an un-ventilated airlock. Ignition of the H2-air mixture was believed to be caused by the relays and micro switches activated when the airlock door was opened.

Incident Synopsis
At an offsite liquid H2 fill station, a liquid hydrogen trailer hit a gaseous H2 purge shut off valve handle. Tubing attached to the purge valve was bent on both ends but did not leak.

Cause
The driver was not sufficiently careful in approaching the liquid H2 system fill point.

Summary
A faulty modification to a multiple-gas piping manifold allowed mixing of hydrogen and oxygen that resulted in a storage tube explosion. Several employees suffered severe burn injuries from the incident.

Incident Synopsis
An employee, without authorization, fabricated and installed an adapter to connect a hydrogen tube trailer manifold to an oxygen tube trailer manifold at a facility for filling compressed-gas cylinders for a variety of gases, including hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and helium. A subsequent improper purging procedure allowed oxygen gas to flow into a partially filled hydrogen tube on a hydrogen tube trailer. An ignition occurred in the manifold piping system and a combustion front traveled into the hydrogen tube where, after traveling about a view more

A large, hydrogen-cooled generator is driven by steam turbines at a power station. During maintenance shutdowns, the hydrogen cooling loop in the generator is purged with carbon dioxide. After CO2 concentrations are measured with a densitometer to verify the complete removal of hydrogen, the generator is purged with air and the maintenance is performed.

This purging procedure was used prior to the explosion. The CO2 reading was reported to be 100 percent CO2 at the top of the generator. The cooling system was then purged with air and a 1/2 inch pipe in the cooling loop was cut to install some new instrumentation. When the pipe was cut, pressurized gas was emitted at the opening. Workers assumed the gas was either carbon dioxide or air and proceeded with the new instrument view more