Bibliography

Introduction to Hydrogen

Hydrogen Flame Characteristics video (mov, 7.4 mb), filmed by ImageWorks for DOE.

Hydrogen Properties




G-095-2004 , ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems, can be purchased from www.aiaa.org.

Hydrogen Flame Characteristics video (mov, 7.4 mb), filmed by ImageWorks for DOE.

CGA H-4 Terminology Associated with Hydrogen Fuel Technologies

CGA G-5 , Hydrogen

B. Lewis and G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases, 3rd ed., Academic Press, Orlando, 1987, pg. 717.

Babrauskas, Vytenis. "Ignition Handbook" Fire Science Publishers, Issaquah, WA.

CRC Recent Developments in Hydrogen Technology, Volume II. Editors K. D. Williamson, Jr. and Frederick J. Edeskuty, CRC Press, Inc. Boca Raton, Florida 1986. See Chapter 2, “Hydrogen Behavior and Nuclear Safety” by Marshall Berman, p. 35.

F.J. Edeskuty and W.F. Stewart, Safety in the Handling of Cryogenic Fluids, Plenum Press, New York, 1996, pg. 102.

J. Hord, Is Hydrogen Safe? National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Technical Note 690, October 1976.

R. D. McCarty, J. Hord and H. M. Roder, NBS Monograph 168, Selected Properties of Hydrogen (Engineering Design Data), Center for Chemical Engineering, National Engineering Laboratory, National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, CO 80303, published by U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 1981.

Safety Practices


OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200 , Hazard Communication

Hydrogen Safety Checklist , April 2013. (pdf, 109 kb)

Safety Plan Checklist , April 2010. (pdf, 133 kb)

CGA P-28 , Risk Management Plan Guidance Document for Bulk Liquid Hydrogen Systems



ISMS Description - April 2007 (pdf, 667 kb) ~ Section 2.1 Safety Management Guiding Principles

CGA P-29 , Application of OSHA PSM and EPA RMP to the Compressed Gas Industry




Guidelines for the Management of Change for Process Safety , AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safety, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 2008.



H2 Safety Snapshot , July 2011


NFPA 704 "Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" can be purchased online.






G-095-2004 , ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems, can be purchased from www.aiaa.org.

The American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) invites chemical, petroleum, and other companies to use the materials found on their website to evaluate their company's process safety culture and to develop improvement strategies.

OSHA 1910.119 , Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals

Hydrogen Flame Characteristics video (mov, 7.4 mb), filmed by ImageWorks for DOE.


Generic MSDS (pdf, 25 kb)

3rd edition of the AIChE's CCPS Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures

A number of NFPA codes discuss requirements for implementing a MOC process, including NFPA 1

A number of tutorials, research papers, book and software reviews related to Fault Tree Analysis are given at www.faulttree.org

Air Products Safetygram for Gaseous Hydrogen (pdf, 161 kb)

Air Products Safetygram for Liquid Hydrogen (pdf, 122 kb)

Bahr, N.J. (1997). "System Safety Engineering and Risk Assessment: A Practical Approach." Taylor & Francis, New York.

Fragment evacuation distance criteria can be found in the ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems (G-095-2004) .

Management of Change, U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Safety Bulletin No. 2001-04-SB , August 2001. (pdf, 163 kb)

Ordin, P.M. " A Review of Hydrogen Accidents and Incidents in NASA Operations, " Proceedings of the 9th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1974. (pdf, )

OSHA requirements are available at www.osha.gov

OSHA requires written operating procedures for process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals: 29 CFR 1910.119

Safe limits for thermal radiation exposure for personnel and equipment cover a wide range and are listed in the appendix of NASA STD 8719.16 (pdf, 3mb)

See NFPA 1561 for Incident Management System guidance.

Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations ( 49 CFR ) "Transportation"

Visit the OSHA web site for Evacuation Plans and Procedures .

Web-based training program Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders is available from the U.S. Department of Energy web site.

Design and Operations

ASME B31.3 Process Piping Code is available for purchase online.

NFPA 45 , Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals

CGA G-5.4 - Standard for Hydrogen Piping Systems at Consumer Locations

NFPA 52 , Vehicular Fuel Systems Code


CGA P-12 , Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids

NFPA 55 , Standard for the Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers, Cylinders, and Tanks

Generic MSDS (pdf, 25 kb)

OSHA 29 CFR 1910.1200 , Hazard Communication

G-095-2004 , ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems, can be purchased from www.aiaa.org.

OSHA 29CFR1910.120(q) ) Emergency Response Program to Hazardous Substance Releases


NFPA 68 , Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting


ASME BPVC, Section VIII , Unfired Pressure Vessels



ISO 15916 - Basic consideration for the safety of hydrogen systems

CGA PS-17 , CGA Position Statement on Underground Installation of Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

OSHA standard 1910.147 , The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) can be purchased online.

IDCON : Preventative Maintenance/Essential Care and Condition Monitoring (PM/ECCM)


CGA PS-20 , CGA Position Statement on the Direct Burial of Gaseous Hydrogen Storage Tanks

NFPA 69 , Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems


CGA G-5.5 - Hydrogen Vent Systems


CGA PS-21 , CGA Position Statement on Adjacent Storage of Compressed Hydrogen and Other Flammable Gases

H2 Safety Snapshot November 2010



CGA S1.3 , Pressure Relief Device Standards-Part 3-Stationary Storage Containers for Compressed Gases

NFPA 70 , National Electrical Code

API STD 607/ISO 10497 - Fire Test for SoftSeatede Quarter-turn Valves


API 620 (pdf, 826 kb)


ASME B31.12 Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines


NFPA 91 , Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors

Forklift-Pedestrian Safety Video (wmv, 7.25 mb), produced by the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries

ASME B31.3, Process Piping Code is available for purchase online.



National Electric Code requirements for ignition source control. (pdf, 495kb)

Operations & Maintenance Best Practices Release 2.0, PNNL, July 2004. (pdf, 2.2 MB)

CGA G-5.6 (EIGA Doc 121) , Hydrogen Pipeline Systems



NFPA 13 , Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems


CGA H-3 , Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage


DoD 6055.9 "DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards" (pdf, 4.51 mb)


ASME B31.8 , Gas Transmission and Distribution Systems

NFPA 255 , Standard Method of Test of Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials

CGA H-4 Terminology Associated with Hydrogen Fuel Technologies

ASME B31.1, 2007 Power Piping is available for purchase online.

OSHA 1910.119 , Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals


CGA G-5 , Hydrogen

NFPA 497 , Recommended Practice for the Classification of Flammable Liquids, Gases, or Vapors and of Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas

CGA P-1 , Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers, Edition 11, August 2008.

" Safe Use of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems " NASA Hydrogen Safety Course, August, 2004.

"Hydrogen Mixing in Large Enclosures", safety lecture by Robert Zalosh.

Agilent Technologies, Hydrogen Safety Guide

Air Products Safetygram for Gaseous Hydrogen (pdf, 161 kb)

Air Products Safetygram for Liquid Hydrogen (pdf, 122 kb)

Air Products Safetygram #34, The Toxic Metal Hydrides (pdf, 537.24 kb)

American Chemical Society, " Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories " (pdf, 246 kb)

B. Lewis and G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases, 3rd ed., Academic Press, Orlando, 1987, pg. 717.

Babrauskas, Vytenis. "Ignition Handbook" Fire Science Publishers, Issaquah, WA.

Dangers of Purging Gas Piping into Buildings, U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Safety Bulletin No. 2009-12-I-NC , September 2009.

Dedrick, D.E. SAND2007-4960 , The reactivity of sodium alanates with O2, H2O, and CO2(pdf, 4.36 mb)

F.J. Edeskuty and W.F. Stewart, Safety in the Handling of Cryogenic Fluids, Plenum Press, New York, 1996, pg. 102.

For more good practices related to labeling, see " Gas Cylinder Safety Guidelines ", prepared by Iowa State University Environmental Health & Safety, Ames Laboratory Environment, Safety, Health & Assurance, August 1997. (pdf, 95 kb)

Guidelines for safe quantity-distances for storage of gaseous and liquid hydrogen are provided in the NASA Glenn Safety Manual Chapter 6 - Hydrogen

J. Hord, Is Hydrogen Safe? National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Technical Note 690, October 1976.

LLNL's web-based training "DOE Hydrogen Safety". Module 3 - Pressure Safety ( HS5094-DOEW ).

LLNL's web-based training "DOE Hydrogen Safety". Module 4 - Cryogenic Safety ( HS5094-DOEW ).

LLNL's web-based training "DOE Hydrogen Safety". Module 5 - Emergency Response ( HS5094-DOEW ).

Management of Change, U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Safety Bulletin No. 2001-04-SB , August 2001. (pdf, 163 kb)

OSHA requires written operating procedures for process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals: 29 CFR 1910.119

OSHA requires written operating procedures for the use of hydrogen: 29 CFR 1910.103

OSHA's primary PPE standards are in Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR), Part 1910 Subpart I.

R.F. Barron, Cryogenics Systems, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, New York, 1985, pg. 411.

Sandia National Laboratory's research on hydrogen jet flames may contribute to the development of codes and standards for separation distances between hydrogen storage vessels and other flammable materials and public spaces. For more Information, contact Chris Moen - cmoen@sandia.gov .

See OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.103 for regulations on seperation distances for hydrogen storage facilities.

See the Sandia Compatible Materials Website for more information

The ANSI/AIAA Guide to Safety of Hydrogen and Hydrogen Systems can be purchased from www.aiaa.org

The International Fuel Gas Code also regulates hydrogen systems.

The code requirements for PRDs are covered by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC)

Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations ( 49 CFR ) "Transportation"


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